Someone with a personality disorder has unhealthy patterns of thinking, functioning and behaving and has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. Personality disorders can have a negative impact on relationships, social activities, work and school, disrupting the lives of not only those with the disorder but the ones who love and care for them as well.
What are the related symptoms?
There are different types of personality disorders, each with their own category and set of symptoms.
The types of may include:
- Antisocial personality disorder: categorised by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others. Individuals with this personality disorder may not conform to social norms, repeatedly lie or deceive others and act impulsively.
- Avoidant personality disorder: a pattern of extreme shyness, feelings of inadequacy and extreme sensitivity to criticism. These people may be unwilling to get involved with people unless they are certain of being liked; they are preoccupied with criticism and rejection and view themselves as socially inept.
- Borderline personality disorder: this disorder is categorised by instability in personal relationships, intense emotions, poor self-image and impulsivity. They will go to great lengths to avoid being abandoned, have tried to commit suicide before and display inappropriate, intense anger or emptiness.
- Dependent personality disorder: these individuals are clingy, feel that they need to be taken care of, have difficulty making decisions without reassurance and feel helpless alone.
- Histrionic personality disorder: symptoms of excessive emotion and attention seeking. They need to be the centre of attention even if it means using exaggerated emotions or physical appearance to draw attention to themselves.
- Narcissistic personality disorder: a person with a narcissistic personality disorder may have a grandiose sense of self-importance, need for admiration, a sense of entitlement, take advantage of others or lack empathy for others.
- Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: this disorder is not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder. These individuals have a preoccupation with orderliness, perfection and control; they are overly focused on details or schedules, allowing no time for leisure or friends and are inflexible in their morality and values.
- Paranoid personality disorder: people with paranoid personality disorder are suspicious of other and believe they are mean or spiteful, out to harm or deceive them, they also don't confide in others or become close to others.
- Schizoid personality disorder: these individuals are detached from social relationships, not seeking close relationships and chooses to be alone. They express little emotion and don't seem to care about praise or criticism from others.
- Schizotypal personality disorder: a pattern of being very uncomfortable in close relationships, having distorted thinking, eccentric or odd behaviour or speech and may have excessive social anxiety.